#Longhaulers #LongCovid #Neisvoid #BrainFog #ApresJ20

Topic: Which vitamins, minerals, and health supplements might help people who have suffered from Covid-19 and its aftermath for too long?


SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes Covid-19. The term “Longhaulers” refers to either the condition, Longhaulers Syndrome, or to persons with the condition, who sometimes call themselves Longhaulers or Long Haulers. Another term, LongCovid, is also used for the condition.

Note Well: The quoting or referencing of physicians, researchers, organizations, and others, within this article, in no way suggests or implies their approval for this List or for this theory of what causes Longhaulers Syndrome.

Disclaimer: This article considers different supplements that might help against Covid-19 or Longhaulers Syndrome. The article does not claim these supplements are a treatment or cure. The studies supporting the items on this list are preliminary.

* This List of Supplements is not a prescription or treatment.
* No one should take everything on the List!
* If you are ill, find a physician who will work with you to treat your illness.
* This List is not a replacement for medical advice or treatment.
* The LongCovid Supplements List is a work in progress, which will continue to be updated.
* The section on Health Supplements is not completed yet.

What is the List? It’s a compilation of supplements that some studies have suggested might be beneficial against Covid-19. And what does that have to do with LongCovid or Longhaulers Syndrome? The author believes that LongCovid is caused by the Covid-19 virus, which remains in the body, entrenched in the Immune Privileged sites, unable to be cleared by the immune system. If that is the case, then supplements which work against Covid-19 should be helpful. This is not a cure.


What Causes LongCovid or Longhaulers Syndrome?

See the separate article here

That is the theory as to what causes LongCovid or Longhaulers Syndrome. In summary, the Covid-19 virus remains in the bodies of people with LongCovid, hiding from the immune system within Immune Privileged sites in the body; these are sites that are protected from the full force of the immune system by various mechanisms. This means that any treatment must reach the virus in the Immune Privileged Cells (IPCs) and in the Central Nervous System (CNS). It also means that your immune system can’t clear the virus on its own.

Here’s the List of Supplements that might help:


Some of the supplements below were chosen for their ability to support and strengthen the immune system [71]. Some were chosen because of studies demonstrating that the supplement reduced the risk of severity or of death in Covid-19 [1 – 21]. Others were chosen because molecular docking studies showed that they may inhibit components of the virus. Some consideration was given to whether the supplement could cross the Blood Brain Barrier, so as to enter into the CNS, as many LongCovid symptoms are from the CNS.

Do NOT take every vitamin, mineral, and supplement on this List. It is a list of compounds that might help. It is not a prescription or treatment. The List may be expanded over time.

If you decide to take anything from this Longhaulers Supplements List (LSL) at least take vitamin D. Lots of vitamin D.


Vitamin D3 – Sharma et al. [55] and Grant et al. [22], after reviewing the literature, both recommend taking 10,000 IU of vitamin D3 daily for a month (or a few weeks), for its benefits against Covid-19, and then subsequently, they recommend taking a reduced dose of 5,000 IU per day. – What if you buy the 10,000 IU pills, and then you want to reduce the dose? You can take 10,000 IU of vitamin D every other day, and that is the equivalent of 5,000 per day [56].
* “To reduce the risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d…. For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful.” [22]
* “Universal intake of up to 40,000 IU vitamin D per day is unlikely to result in vitamin D toxicity.” [23]
* “COVID-19 was compared with dengue fever, for which oral vitamin D supplements of 4000 IU for 10 days were significantly more effective than 1000 IU in reducing virus replication and controlling the cytokine storm responsible for fatalities.” [40]
* “Raising serum 25D enables macrophages, a type of white blood cell of the immune system, to secrete potent antiviral proteins that can destroy SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19,” explained Charles W. Bishop, PhD, CEO of OPKO’s Renal Division. “It also can suppress the cytokine storm triggered by viral infection.” [FDA authorizes Phase II Trial]
* Having normal healthy blood levels of vitamin D (30 to 100 ng/ml; 75 to 250 nmol/liter) reduces Covid-19 risks, including risk of infection [7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16], of having a severe case [1, 3, 4, 5, 15, 17, 20], of needing hospitalization, ICU care, and/or mechanical ventilation [2, 10, 14, 15, 21], as well as the risk of dying from Covid-19 [4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19].
* Vitamin D is part of the MATH+ Protocol
Studies: [1 through 24, 70, 91]


Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) – the second most important supplement to take after vitamin D! – 100 mg, two to four times a day – this is the dosage used for migraines, and so it is the dosage to try for the CNS symptoms of longhaulers. See this article on Riboflavin as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2
* Riboflavin is highly bio-available, water soluble, crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) to reach the Central Nervous Symptoms (CNS). It is converted by the body into the related compounds Flavin Monomucleotide (FMN) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD). All three compounds, riboflavin, FMN, and FAD are strong inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 (the Covid virus).
Studies: [24 to 39]


Benfotiamine – 300 mg/day – benfotiamine is a highly bioavailable form of vitamin B1 (thiamine) – Thiamine is the “T” in MATH+. In addition, many of the LongCovid symptoms like brain fog and POTS are symptoms of B1 deficiency. Benfotiamine has been used for many years for B1 deficiency as it is more bioavailable. You can take Thiamine instead of benfotiamine, if the latter is not available.


Alpha-Lipoic Acid – a single study showed a decrease in death from Covid-19 with use of Alpha-Lipoic Acid [97]. Studies, not on Covid19, have shown benefits from use of alpha-lipoic acid with benfotiamine.


Vitamin B12 – 2500 micrograms twice a day – a study [41] found that vitamin D, vitamin B12, and magnesium reduced the risk of death from Covid-19 – this suggests that B12 might have a beneficial effect against the virus. See this article on vitamin D, vitamin B12, and magnesium for Covid-19. Vitamin B12 has also been reported by a molecular docking studies to inhibit RdRp (replicase, the viral protein that makes copies of the viral RNA) [42].
Studies: [41, 42]


Vitamin C – 500 milligrams twice a day – do not take megadoses of vitamin C, as this does more harm than good – Vitamin C strengthens and supports the immune system. – Also, molecular docking studies have found that ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a mild inhibitor of multiple components of SARS-CoV-2 [43], as well as the Spike protein [44], PLpro [45], Mpro and ACE2 [46].
* Vitamin C is Recommended in the MATH+ Protocol
Studies: [43 to 46, 70]


Vitamin K (K1, Mk-4, Mk-7) – take a vitamin K supplement that includes K1, and two versions of K2, called Mk-4 and Mk-7 – vitamin K complements the vitamin D and also supports normal blood clotting – A study concluded that: “Vitamin K status was reduced in patients with COVID-19 and related to poor prognosis.” [50]. In addition, molecular docking studies show that phylloquinone (K1) inhibits the Spike protein [47], Nsp16 [48], and Mpro [49].
Studies: [47 to 50]



Zinc – 30 milligrams one to three times a day (30 to 90 mg/d) or you could take 50 milligrams once or twice a day (50 to 100 mg/d) – Zinc supports the immune system, and Zinc ions may interfere with the viral protein (RdRp) that makes copies of the viral RNA [59] – take with a zinc ionophore (EGCG or Quercetin) –
* “Zinc is an essential trace element that is crucial for growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function.” [57]. When zinc is combined with a zinc ionophore, the ionophore carries the zinc ions into the cytoplasm of the cell, where the zinc inhibits the viral component RdRp, and RdRp (also called “replicase”) makes copies of the viral RNA [58, 59, 60]. By combining zinc with hydroxychloroquine, a zinc ionophore, some studies have obtained better clinical results [61, 62] than without the zinc.
* * Zinc is Recommended in the MATH+ Protocol
* New study [99] found “Serum zinc levels lower than 50 mcgg/dl at admission correlated with worse clinical presentation, longer time to reach stability and higher mortality.”
Studies: [57 to 62, 69-70, 99]


Copper – taking high levels of zinc can lead to a copper deficiency – take 1 to 2 milligrams of copper per day, only if you are also taking zinc – some zinc supplements include copper – do NOT exceed 2 mg/d of copper by supplementation. In addition, copper may help inhibit SARS-CoV-2, but the effect is likely much lower than inhibition by zinc [63]. And some researchers have proposed that copper may be beneficial for COVID-19 patients [64]. However, the main reason for taking a copper supplement, at low dose, is to prevent copper deficiency caused by taking Zinc.
Studies: [63, 64]


Selenium – 100 to 200 micrograms per day – supports the immune system – One study found that selenium deficiency (too little selenium) increases risk of death from COVID-19; this suggests that taking selenium might reduce severity of disease [65]. Other researchers have suggested that “early nutritional interventions with zinc, selenium and vitamin D” may raise “anti-viral resistance against progressive Covid-19” [66]. A third study found an “association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of Covid-19 cases in China” [67]. Higher selenium levels in the body resulting in better outcomes for Covid-19 cases.
Do NOT take more than 200 micrograms of selenium per day. Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon University: “Although selenium is required for health, high doses of selenium can be toxic. Acute and fatal toxicities have occurred with accidental or suicidal ingestion of gram quantities of selenium.” [68]
Studies: [65 to 68, 70]


Magnesium – 150 to 300 milligrams per day in addition to a healthy diet that includes whole grains – See this article on vitamin D, vitamin B12, and magnesium for Covid-19.
* In this study [41], Vitamin D, Magnesium, and Vitamin B12 (termed “DMB”) reduced need for oxygen therapy and reduced need for ICU care: “DMB combination in older COVID-19 patients was associated with a significant reduction in proportion of patients with clinical deterioration requiring oxygen support and/or intensive care support. This study supports further larger randomized control trials to ascertain the full benefit of DMB in ameliorating COVID-19 severity.” [41]
* “We hypothesize that a low Mg status, which is rather common, might foment the transition from mild to critical clinical manifestations of the disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and fundamental research is needed to clarify the potential role of Mg deficiency in COVID-19.” [72]
* “Concurrent vitamin D and magnesium supplementation may be critical for prevention and treatment of COVID-19…. Normal healthy individuals taking precaution to prevent infection or those experiencing mild COVID-19 symptoms may consider daily supplementation with 350 mg of magnesium, particularly if dietary intake is low.” [73]
* “Therefore, decreased resistance against infection with SARS-CoV-2 in case of Mg deficiency can be assumed.” [74]
Magnesium reduces risk of QT interval prolongation, which can be caused by certain Covid-19 medications [74].
* “In view of the relationships described, it is plausible to assume that Mg deficiency may decrease the resistance against infection with SARS-CoV-2 and, most notably, may worsen the course of COVID-19. Hence, Mg deficiency could be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, comparable to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, older age, obesity, amongst others. Interestingly, Mg deficiency is often associated with these risk factors or seen as comorbidity.” [74].
Studies: [41, 72-74]



There are two types of reference numbers below, Endnotes, found at the end of this article; and molecular docking studies found in The Covid-19 Molecular Docking Studies List. This is done because the number of cited studies from that list is high, and its easier not to have to transfer over one hundred references from there to the end of this article.

* Omega-3 fatty acids – found in flaxseed oil, walnuts, chiaseed oil, and hempseed oil. Also, long-chain fatty acids from fatty fish, fish oil supplements, or algae oil supplements (e.g. “Ovega-3” a vegan source of marine long-chain fatty acids). Recommended by Dr. Paul Marik for Longhaulers.

* Green Tea extract (EGCG with other Catechins) – 400 mg (half as EGCG) twice a day – decaffeinated!! – EGCG, found in Green Tea extract, is a zinc ionophore – Zinc ionophores include: EGCG, doxycycline, quercetin, hydroxychloroquine – You only need one zinc ionophore, though taking more than one is not harmful – Do not take prescription drugs without a physician’s prescription and oversight – You cannot obtain enough EGCG and other Catechins from drinking green tea.
40 Studies on EGCG and/or other Catechins from Green Tea: [MDS List: 1, 5, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 47, 66, 67, 69, 75, 78, 102, 104, 105, 110, 120, 128, 137, 154, 158, 160, 164, 166, 168]

* Hesperidin or Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone – 500 mg twice a day – Hesperidin has been found by dozens of molecular docking studies to be an effective inhibitor of multiple viral components of SARS-CoV-2 — the Covid-19 virus. It is a not uncommon OTC health supplement, and is naturally found in some citrus fruits. Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone is a better choice as this version of the molecule is highly water soluble and much more bioavailable.
29 Studies: [MDS List: 6, 7, 9, 10, 17, 18, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 34, 41, 42, 43, 47, 93, 97, 100, 101, 111, 112, 145, 148, 154, 155, 158, 160, 164]

* Melatonin – start with a low dose of 300 micrograms (0.3 mg) once per day, before bed – work up to a dose of 3 to 6 milligrams once per day before bed –
* Melatonin is Recommended in the MATH+ Protocol
* “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Its Neuroinvasive Capacity: Is It Time for Melatonin?” [92]
* Melatonin “has high permeability through biological compartments, including blood brain barrier (BBB) (Tarocco et al. 2019), reaching cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear compartments.” [92]
* Melatonin has anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-oxidant effects [93]. “In addition… a) melatonin has a very high safety profile… b) melatonin can be administered via multiple noninvasive routes; c) the shelf life of melatonin is very long… d) it is readily available in pharmacologically-available purity; e) melatonin can be self-administered… f) melatonin may not only protect against acute lung injury but also the long-term respiratory damage associated with a COVID-19 infection, e.g., fibrosis; g) melatonin protects the lungs as well as all other organs, the damage of which contributes to multiple organ failure; and h) if given in combination with repurposed prescription medications, melatonin may reduce the side effects of those drugs. [93]”
* “melatonin may be a potential agent to prevent multiple organ injuries and subsequent disease progression as well as sequelae in patients with COVID-19 due to its modulating effects on RAS, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenger, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. [94]”
Studies: [70, 92 – 94]
* New Study finds Melatonin reduces risk of death and improves outcomes in Covid19 cases

* Quercetin – 500 mg twice a day – a zinc ionophore – also inhibits multiple components of the Covid-19 virus, according to over sixty molecular docking studies.
* Quercetin crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and has positive effects on brain cells [95, 96].
* Quercetin is Recommended in the MATH+ Protocol
62 Studies: [MDS List: 4, 9, 17, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 39, 42, 45, 46, 47, 50, 52, 54, 58, 64, 66, 67, 69, 70, 75, 76, 81, 86, 98, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 112, 116, 117, 118, 119, 123, 128, 132, 138, 139, 140, 141, 147, 148, 154, 155, 156, 159, 160, 166, 168]

* Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) – as previously stated in the Vitamin Section above – 100 mg two to four times a day – Riboflavin is used to treat migraines (at 400 mg/d) – highly bioavailable, highly water soluble, crosses the BBB, Riboflavin turns into FMN and FAD, all three of which have been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 strongly.
Studies: [24 to 39]

* Resveratrol – 500 mg twice a day – 18 molecular docking studies show that resveratrol inhibits the virus (SARS-CoV-2); also, it crosses the BBB.
62 Studies: [MDS List: 5, 13, 20, 22, 25, 26, 38, 47, 58, 62, 67, 75, 82, 83, 86, 101, 132, 166]

* Platycodon grandiflorus extract also called balloon flower or bell flower root extract – 2 to 4 servings/day (a popular and approved health supplement in South Korea)
Studies: [MDS List: 7, 42]

* Curcumin – molecular docking studies show that curcumin is a strong inhibitor of the Covid-19 virus – reduces inflammation and inhibits viral replication.
36 Studies: [MDS List: 1, 5, 9, 14, 20, 21, 23, 26, 29, 33, 34, 37, 42, 43, 45, 50, 53, 58, 61, 62, 64, 65, 67, 69, 73, 86, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 102, 126, 147, 159, 160]

* Mirica (PEA and Luteolin) – PEA reduces inflammation by its effect on MAST cells. Mirica is just a combination of PEA and Luteolin. You can get PEA and Luteolin separately and take each as a separate pill. So you don’t need the brand-name Mirica. PEA is available by itself as “Normast”.


Keto-Diet – A ketogenic diet may possibly produce sufficient ketones in the bloodstream to inhibit the viral Spike protein, as hypothesized by one particular paper [98]. There is not much support for this idea, but the keto-diet, done correctly, can be a healthy diet. Do NOT simply stop eating carbs; that would be very harmful and possibly deadly. If you are not familiar with the keto-diet, either do a great deal of reading and research before beginning, or skip this entirely. In addition, some papers have explored the question as to whether intermittent fasting might help against Covid-19.



Famotidine – 20 to 40 milligrams per day – available over-the-counter (non-prescription) medication to reduce stomach acid – in this case, famotidine is taken because some studies have shown it may reduce risk of death from Covid-19, therefore it has a substantial effect on the disease.
* “This retrospective study found that, in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, famotidine use was associated with a reduced risk of clinical deterioration leading to intubation or death.” [75]
* Famotidine is Recommended in the MATH+ Protocol
Studies: [75, 88 – 90]

Tylenol PM, which is a combination of two drugs, Tylenol (acetaminophen) and Benadryl (diphenhydramine). In some nations, Tylenol is called paracetamol. Tylenol is a pain and fever reliever, which does not reduce blood clotting and is not an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Benadryl is an antihistamine, which often causes sleepiness as a side effect, therefore it is often taken at bedtime as a sleep aid. A particular Longhauler suggested this drug combination, as it worked for her.

Aspirin (also called ASA or acetyl-salicylic acid) in low dose form (81 mg per day) as a way to reduce the risk of blood clots.



Find a physician who will work with you.

This section on prescription medications is for use by physicians. Doxycycline and steroids are two well-known widely-accepted treatments for Covid-19. This section on prescription meds was added so as to make it clear that persons with LongCovid (Longhaulers Syndrome) need the care of a physician and may need prescription medications. Your physician will of course use their own medical judgment, and you should follow their advice and treatment regimen over anything said on this website.

Ask your physician about the use of interferon beta-1b for treating LongCovid. [PDF of Study on Interferon beta-1b for Covid]

Doxycycline – requires prescription – crosses the blood-brain barrier to work against the virus there as well as throughout the body – doxycycline is an antibiotic, but it has also been found to inhibit the Covid-19 virus and to reduce inflammation.
12 Studies: [83 to 87] and [MDS List: 2, 7, 72, 101, 115, 149, 152]

Ivermectin – Does not cross the BBB – causes neurological damage to the brain, if it crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier – Use only if prescribed by a physician, who has determined it will not cross the BBB in your case.
* Ivermectin is Recommended in the MATH+ Protocol

Steroids – Covid-19 indisputably causes severe inflammation as well as dysregulation of the immune system, making it difficult to get the inflammation to stop, even if the virus is cleared. Thus, some physicians have used steroids to treat LongCovid patients, with beneficial results. This is not a cure in itself, nor should it be the only treatment, and it might not be the answer for everyone.
* Note Well that the type of steroid needed here is NOT an anabolic steroid for building muscle mass; that is a different steroid and would not work for this purpose.
* Steroids are Recommended in the MATH+ Protocol but ONLY for patients in the later stage of the disease.
* Dr. Mobeen Syed of the YouTube channel DrBeen’s Medical Lectures says “I have seen so far, that when I give my patients steroids pulse, they recover. All of my longhauler patients….” respond well to steroids. A steroid “pulse” means a short course of steroids, tapering off at the end.
* In a Tweet, Dr. Syed said that his regime for long haulers is as follows:
Deltacortril 5 mg 3x/day x 2 Days
Deltacortril 5 mg 2x/day x 2 Days
Deltacortril 5 mg 1x/day x 2 Days
While tapering, keep the dose earlier in the day. Deltacortril is Prednisolone.
Dr. Syed: “While tapering I keep the dose earlier in the day. Disclaimer: This isn’t a prescription for anyone. Just information for my management method.”


Nothing on this site constitutes medical advice. Never use this information as a substitute for medical advice, nor as a reason to ignore the advice of your doctor. Always talk to your doctor before making health-related decisions.

This article was authored by:
Ronald L. Conte Jr.
Note: The author of this article is not a doctor, nurse, or medical professional.

Consider supporting Covid.us.org with a one-time or recurring donation via PayPal


Important: Studies marked “MDS List” are found at the linked page of previously-published references, not below.

1. Alipio, Mark. “Vitamin D Supplementation Could Possibly Improve Clinical Outcomes of Patients Infected with Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19).” SSRN 3571484 (9 April 2020).
Study Link

2. Lau, Frank H., et al. “Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in severe COVID-19.” medRxiv (28 April 2020).
Study Link

3. Daneshkhah, Ali, et al. “The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 Patients.” medRxiv (2020).
Study Link

4. Davies, Gareth, Attila R. Garami, and Joanna C. Byers. “Evidence Supports a Causal Model for Vitamin D in COVID-19 Outcomes.” medRxiv (2020).
Study Link

5. De Smet, Dieter, et al. “Vitamin D deficiency as risk factor for severe COVID-19: a convergence of two pandemics.” medRxiv (2020).
Study Link

6. Raharusun, Prabowo, et al. “Patterns of COVID-19 Mortality and Vitamin D: An Indonesian Study.” (2020).
PDF file

7. Ilie, Petre Cristian, Simina Stefanescu, and Lee Smith. “The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality.” Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (2020): 1.
Study Link

8. D’Avolio, Antonio, et al. “25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2.” Nutrients 12.5 (2020): 1359.
Study Link

9. Laird, E., et al. “Vitamin D and Inflammation: Potential Implications for Severity of Covid-19.” Ir Med J; Vol 113; No. 5; P81: 2020.
PDF file

10. Faul, J.L., et al. “Vitamin D Deficiency and ARDS after SARS-CoV-2 Infection.” Ir Med J; Vol 113; No. 5; P84: 2020.
PDF file

11. Meltzer, David O., et al. “Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Treatment with COVID-19 Incidence.” medRxiv (2020).
Study Link

12. Li, Yajia, et al. “Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the United States.” (2020).
PDF file

13. Pugach, Isaac Z. and Pugach, Sofya “Strong Correlation Between Prevalence of Severe Vitamin D Deficiency and Population Mortality Rate from COVID-19 in Europe.” medRxiv (2020).
Study Link

14. Merzon, Eugene, et al. “Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D3 level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study.” medRxiv (2020). — Low vitamin D increased risk (adjusted OR) of infection with Covid-19 by 45% and of hospitalization for Covid by 95%.
Study Link

15. Panagiotou, Grigorios et al., “Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity: results of a local audit of practice.” medRxiv (2020). Conclusion: “we found that patients requiring ITU admission [in the ICU] were more frequently vitamin D deficient than those managed on medical wards [on the floor], despite being significantly younger.”
PDF file Link

16. Chang, Timothy S., et al. “Prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 in a Los Angeles Health System.” medRxiv (2020).
Study Link
~ Risk factors included vitamin D deficiency, which increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis by 80% (OR 1.8 [1.4-2.2], p=5.7 x 10-6).

17. Maghbooli, Zhila, et al. “Vitamin D Sufficiency Reduced Risk for Morbidity and Mortality in COVID-19 Patients.” Available at SSRN 3616008 (2020).
Study Link
~ Vitamin D sufficiency reduced clinical severity and inpatient mortality.

18. Panarese and Shahini, “Letter: Covid-19 and Vitamin D” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, April 12, 2020.
Link to Letter
~ Covid-19 mortality increases with increasing latitude (by nation), and vitamin D blood levels decrease with increasing latitude. The authors propose that low levels of vitamin D increase Covid-19 mortality.

19. Carpagnano, Giovanna Elisiana, et al. “Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19.” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation (2020): 1-7. Study Link
~ “A survival analysis highlighted that, after 10 days of hospitalization, severe vitamin D deficiency patients had a 50% mortality probability, while those with vitamin D = 10 ng/mL had a 5% mortality risk (p = 0.019).”

20. Mardani, R., et al. “Association of vitamin D with the modulation of the disease severity in COVID-19.” Virus Research (2020): 198148. Study Link

21. Castillo, Marta Entrenas, et al. “Effect of Calcifediol Treatment and best Available Therapy versus best Available Therapy on Intensive Care Unit Admission and Mortality Among Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: A Pilot Randomized Clinical study.” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2020): 105751. Study Link

22. Grant, William B., et al. “Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths.” Nutrients 12.4 (2020): 988. Study Link
— “To reduce the risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d…. For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful.”

23. Garland, Cedric F., et al. “Vitamin D supplement doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the range associated with cancer prevention.” Anticancer research 31.2 (2011): 607-611. Study Link
— “Results: Serum 25(OH)D rose as a function of self-reported vitamin D supplement ingestion in a curvilinear fashion, with no intakes of 10,000 IU/d or lower producing 25(OH)D values above the lower-bound of the zone of potential toxicity (200 ng/ml). Unsupplemented all-source input was estimated at 3,300 IU/d. The supplemental dose ensuring that 97.5% of this population achieved a serum 25(OH)D of at least 40 ng/ml was 9,600 IU/d. Conclusion: Universal intake of up to 40,000 IU vitamin D per day is unlikely to result in vitamin D toxicity.”

24. Charoenngam and Holick, “Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease.” Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2097; Study Link
— “It is therefore proposed that supplementation of vitamin D can reduce the risk and severity of COVID-19 infection.”

25. Alabboud, Michael, and Ali Javadmanesh. “In silico study of various antiviral drugs, vitamins, and natural substances as potential binding compounds with SARS-CoV-2 main protease.” DYSONA-Life Science (2020): 44-63.

26. Mittal, Lovika, et al. “Identification of potential molecules against COVID-19 main protease through structure-guided virtual screening approach.” Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics just-accepted (2020): 1-26.

27. Shankar, Uma, et al. “Potential drugs targeting Nsp16 protein may corroborates a promising approach to combat SARS-CoV-2 virus.” (2020).

28. Bank, Sarbashri, et al. “In-silico analysis of potential interaction of drugs and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.” (2020).

29. Kumar, V., and M. Jena. “In silico virtual screening-based study of nutraceuticals predicts the therapeutic potentials of folic acid and its derivatives against COVID-19.” (2020).

30. Zhang, Leili, and Ruhong Zhou. “Binding mechanism of remdesivir to SARS-CoV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase.” (2020).

31. Kumar, Sugandh, et al. “Identification of Drugs Targeting Multiple Viral and Human Proteins Using Computational Analysis for Repurposing Against COVID-19.” (2020).

32. Prajapat, Manisha, et al. “Virtual screening and molecular dynamics study of approved drugs as inhibitors of spike protein S1 domain and ACE2 interaction in SARS-CoV-2.” Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling (2020): 107716.

33. Garabato, Brady D., Federico Falchi, and Andrea Cavalli. “COVID-19 Repurposed Therapeutics Targeting the Viral Protease and Spike-protein: ACE2 Interface using MD-based Pharmacophore and Consensus Virtual Screening.”

34. Joshi, T., et al. “In silico screening of natural compounds against COVID-19 by targeting Mpro and ACE2 using molecular docking.” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 24 (2020): 4529-4536.

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