Explaining the Research on Covid-19


Note: this page is a list of studies, news articles, and videos on ivermectin.

Latest and/or Most Important:

British Ivermectin Recommendation Development (BIRD) recommends immediate approval and widespread use of Ivermectin to the WHO.

Medical Safety of Ivermectin– comprehensive review of safety; conclusion, “Ivermectin human toxicity cannot be claimed to be a serious cause for concern.”

U.S. National Institutes of Health have changed their position on Ivermectin from recommending against, to a neutral position, as of January 14th, 2021. New Position here. This change is likely due to the intervention of FLCCC Alliance asking NIH to change their position.

* WHO preliminary review confirms Ivermectin effectiveness
* Review of Meta-Analyses on Ivermectin
* Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19 by the FLCCC Alliance, including Drs. Kory and Marik
* Dr. Osgood relates his Ivermectin Success Story
* Interview of Dr. Paul Marik on Ivermectin
* How Does Ivermectin Work?

** Study using Ivermectin to treat LongCovid — 94% successful — article on that study.

* “I Can’t Keep Watching Patients Die Needlessly!” Medical Professor Testifies to Congress that COVID Cure Already Exists with Ivermectin

* Interview of Dr Tess Lawrie on her Ivermectin meta-analysis.
* Interview of Adam Gaertner by Dr. Mobeen Syed on Ivermectin. Gaertner sees the drug as the solution to the Covid-19 problem: Ivermectin is to viruses and penicillin is to bacteria.

* FLCCC Alliance compilation of Ivermectin trials: Ivermectin Trial Data

* Judge orders woman, dying of Covid-19 in a hospital, to be given ivermectin, against doctors’ orders. She recovered promptly. She and her son insist the medication saved her life. The doctor forced to give the life saving treatment, won’t admit that it saved her. Here’s what happened. The 80 year old patient’s family were told she had a 20% chance of survival; she was on a respirator. They pressured the doctor to give her ivermectin. She immediately recovered and was taken off the ventilator, and was transferred out of the ICU. But then the doctors would not give her a second dose, and she began to decline. They had to get a court order to save her life, with the second dose.

Ivermectin Clinical Trials

* Farnoosh, Gholamreza, et al. “Efficacy of a Low Dose of Melatonin as an Adjunctive Therapy in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial.” (2020). — “standard of care plus melatonin at a dose of 3 mg three times daily for 14 days.” Melatonin reduced time to recovery and reduced symptoms, including fatigue, fever, cough, etc. after 14 days of treatment.

* The use of compassionate Ivermectin in the management of symptomatic outpatients and hospitalized patients with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 at the Medical Center Bournigal and the Medical Center Punta Cana, Rescue Group, Dominican Republic, from may 1 to august 10, 2020

* Use of Ivermectin is Associated with Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 (ICON study). Juliana Cepelowicz Rajter, M.D. et al.
October 12, 2020. Chest journal Study Link

* Gorial, Faiq I., et al. “Effectiveness of Ivermectin as add-on Therapy in COVID-19 Management (Pilot Trial).” medRxiv (2020).
~ All the patients of IVM group were cured; none of the Ivermectin patients died. “The mean time to stay in the hospital was significantly lower in IVM group compared with the controls”, 7.62 days for IVM and 13.22 days for control. Results were highly statistically significant.

* Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar. “A Combination of Ivermectin and Doxycycline Possibly Blocks the Viral Entry and Modulate the Innate Immune Response in COVID-19 Patients.” (2020).
~ In this molecular docking study, the mechanism of action of ivermectin and doxycycline were examined. Ivermectin is a strong inhibitor of replicase (RdRp), both proteases, the N-protein, and the Spike protein. The Ki values for ivermectin against various SARS-CoV-2 targets was below 1.0 and in some cases below 0.4 micromolar.

* Scheim, David. “Ivermectin for COVID-19 Treatment: Clinical Response at Quasi-Threshold Doses Via Hypothesized Alleviation of CD147-Mediated Vascular Occlusion.” Available at SSRN 3636557 (2020).
“Overall mortality was 15% in the IVM group, 40% less (p=0.03) than the 25.2% mortality in the control group. For 75 patients with severe pulmonary disease (receiving oxygen at FiO2 ≥ 50% or ventilation), those treated with IVM (n=46) had a mortality of 38.8%, 52% less (p=0.001) than the 80.7% mortality in corresponding controls (n=29). Stabilization and then improvement often proceeded in 1-2 days, even for patients who had been deteriorating rapidly from room air to supplemental oxygen at up to a 50% mixture (FiO2 ≤ 0.5). The 1-2-day reversals of declining oxygen status in these Florida patients is consistent with rapid absorption and distribution into tissue of orally administered IVM.”

* Rajter, Juliana Cepelowicz, et al. “ICON (Ivermectin in COvid Nineteen) study: Use of Ivermectin is Associated with Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID19.” medRxiv (2020).
Conclusion: “Ivermectin was associated with lower mortality during treatment of COVID-19, especially in patients who required higher inspired oxygen or ventilatory support.”

* Chowdhury, Abu Taiub Mohammed Mohiuddin, et al. “A comparative observational study on Ivermectin-Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin therapy on COVID19 patients.”
Conclusion: “Concerning the treatment outcome, adverse effect, and safety, IvermectinDoxycycline combination is superior to Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin therapy in the case of mild to moderate degree of COVID19 patients. ”

Ivermectin in vitro and animal studies

* Chaccour, Carlos, et al. “Nebulized ivermectin for COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases, a proof of concept, dose-ranging study in rats.” (2020). PDF of Study

* Caly, Leon, et al. “The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.” Antiviral research (2020): 104787.
Conclusion: “Ivermectin is an inhibitor of the COVID-19 causative virus (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro.” and “A single treatment able to effect ~5000-fold reduction in virus at 48 h in cell culture.”

Ivermectin articles

* Well-Respected Australian Researcher: Consider Triple Therapy (Ivermectin, Zinc, Doxycycline) for COVID-19, Aug. 4, 2020.

* Amelia Carolina Sparavigna, “Ivermectin for Covid-19.” July, 2020. ResearchGate. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3893750
PDF file

* Shu, E. N., E. O. Onwujekwe, and P. O. Okonkwo. “Do alcoholic beverages enhance availability of ivermectin?.” European journal of clinical pharmacology 56.5 (2000): 437. PDF file

* Heidary, Fatemeh, and Reza Gharebaghi. “Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen.” The Journal of Antibiotics (2020): 1-10.

* Schmith, Virginia D., Jie Zhou, and Lauren RL Lohmer. “The Approved Dose of Ivermectin Alone is not the Ideal Dose for the Treatment of COVID‐19.” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2020).
~ Comment: The article above assumes that ivermectin works as an inhibitor, and therefore compares approved dose to IC50. But the results of clinical studies (above) suggest that ivermectin works in some other way, i.e. not as an inhibitor that would depend upon concentration.

* Wijaya, Natalia Sisca, and Sidharta Salim. “Ivermectin as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for COVID-19–case studies.” Cermin Dunia Kedokteran 47.7 (2020): 370-372.
~ Three confirmed cases of Covid-19 showed “significant improvement clinically and radiologically following treatment with single dose of ivermectin.”

Ivermectin news

* List of Ivermectin News Stories (

* President of Dominican Republic’s Largest Private Health Group Discusses the Success of Ivermectin as a Treatment for Early Stage COVID-19 – June 30th, 2020

* Ivermectin Study Reveals Fantastic Results: 100% of 60 Patients Better in an Average of Just Under 6 Days – June 28th, 2020

* Medical team in Bangladesh suggests combination of Ivermectin and Doxycycline for COVID-19 treatment – May 18th, 2020

Ivermectin videos

* Dr. Mobeen Syen discusses how ivermectin works against Covid

* Dr. Roger Seheult with MedCram on ivermectin

* Dr. Jennifer Hibberd on how ivermectin saved lives in a Toronto nursing home
Summary: Valley View Nursing Home in Tornoto, Canada had an outbreak of scabies (late February, 2020). 170 patients at the home were given Ivermectin. The residents of the 4th floor, where the outbreak occurred, were given the highest dose; the rest of the residents were given a prophylactic dose. The staff were not given ivermectin.

Then they had a Covid-19 outbreak. The staff were infected with Covid-19 much more than the patients. Only 6 patients contracted Covid, and they all had mild cases. The patients on the 4th floor, who received the highest dose of ivermectin, had no cases of Covid. These patients were very elderly with co-morbidities, and they had much contact with the staff. Yet they were disease free.

Ivermectin Molecular Docking Studies

Note: despite the evidence that ivermectin is a potent inhibitor of multiple SARS-CoV-2 targets, a safe dosage of the drug is unlikely to reach the necessary concentration for effective inhibition [1]. Yet clinical trials so far indicate it does work. Therefore, ivermectin must have some other mode of operation (as Dr. Mobeen discusses in his video above).

* Dayer, Mohammad Reza. “Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Deactivation via Spike Glycoprotein Shielding by Old Drugs, Bioinformatic Study.” (2020).
~ Ivermectin was the second most effective drug at shielding the Spike from the ACE2 receptor.

* Thurakkal, Liya, et al. “An in-silico study on selected organosulfur compounds as potential drugs for SARS-CoV-2 infection via binding multiple drug targets.” (2020). PDF file
Conclusion: Ivermectin inhibits the helicase polymerase of SARS-CoV-2 (-8.5)

* Hussien, Mostafa A., and Ahmed EM Abdelaziz. “Molecular Docking suggests repurposing of Brincidofovir as a potential drug targeting SARS-CoV-2″ COVID-19″ ACE2 receptor and main protease.” (2020).
Conclusion: Ivermectin inhibits Mpro and ACE2 (-10.31 and -8.62).

* Rehman, Md Tabish, Mohamed F. AlAjmi, and Afzal Hussain. “Natural Compounds as Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (3CLpro): A Molecular Docking and Simulation Approach to Combat COVID-19.” (2020).
Conclusion: Ivermectin inhibits Mpro (-9.3 docking score).

* Suravajhala, Renuka, et al. “Comparative Docking Studies on Curcumin with COVID-19 Proteins.” (2020).
Conclusion: Ivermectin inhibits the Spike, M-protein, N-protein, Nsp10 (-6.69, -7.42, -7.11, -9.82).

* Dasgupta, Jhimli, et al. “Nsp7 and Spike Glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 are envisaged as Potential Targets of Vitamin D and Ivermectin.” (2020).
Conclusion: Ivermectin inhibits Spike protein (-15 kcal/mole).

* Giri, Sabeena, Arnica F. Lal, and Shaminder Singh. “Battle against Coronavirus: Repurposing old friends (Food borne polyphenols) for new enemy (COVID-19).” (2020).
Conclusion: Ivermectin inhibits Mpro (-8.2).

* Nallusamy, Saranya, et al. “Shortlisting Phytochemicals Exhibiting Inhibitory Activity against Major Proteins of SARS-CoV-2 through Virtual Screening.” (2020).
Conclusion: Ivermectin inhibits Mpro, RdRp, Spike (-7.3, -9.4, -8.2).

[1] Momekov, Georgi, and Denitsa Momekova. “Ivermectin as a potential COVID-19 treatment from the pharmacokinetic point of view: antiviral levels are not likely attainable with known dosing regimens.” Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 34.1 (2020): 469-474.

Ronald L. Conte Jr.
Note: the author of this article is not a doctor, nurse, or healthcare provider.

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7 thoughts on “Ivermectin

  1. What is the efficacy of Ivermectin AND Hydroxychloroquine and why does Ivermectin cost so much more (by almost 40%), than Hydroxychloroquine? And, how long does one have to be on the pill regimens, so, as for those medications to be permanently effective.


    1. Ivermectin seems to be much more effective than hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Ivermectin requires a much lower dose than HCQ, and for a shorter period of time, so it is actually less expensive. There are different Ivermectin dosing schedules, so I couldn’t say how long. See
      for more information


  2. Ivermectin reduces the risk of death from COVID-19 -a rapid review and meta-analysis in support of the recommendation of the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance. (Latest version v1.2 – 6 Jan 2021)


  3. Hi Hoyt, I see that you have put a number of independent reports and observation. Congrats from my side. Marcelo


  4. Some reddit resources you may find helpful.

    There is an on-going collection of i300+ ivermectin articles, new stories, studies, etc, here:

    This reddit sub only allows science-based posts, gets good comments by smart people:

    This sub is less stringent about science. It has a lot more commenters than the first link does.

    LOVE the way you have organized this!


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